MORALEDA DE ZAFAYONA:


Prehistoric/Pre-Roman
1000 b. C. - Presence of an Iberian town in El Cerro de la Mora. Also, possible occupation by Tartessos.
Romans
Vestiges of Romans and Visigoths.
Muslims
Origin of the present settlement as a settlement that made their living on the silk industry.
Christian Conquest
1492 - Christianization done by the Catholic Kings and Moraleda started to depend on Loja.
Modern Age
1568 - Revolt of the Moors in Granada repressed, later expelled from all towns. Repopulation with new settlers from other regions.
Contemporary Age
1884 - Destruction by an earthquake and reconstruction.

MONTEFRÍO:

Prehistoric/Pre-Roman
4500 b.C - There are many archaeological rests that give faith of the existence of different settlements from the Half Neolithic period. For example: The settlement of Castillejos.
Romans
It was already rich in the antiquity: the Mons Frigus of the Latin’s.
Muslims
Had to lay out a commercial route from Torre del Mar and Velez-Malaga, passing by Alhama and this place, towards the countryside and the Guadalquivir valley.
The Nasrid king Ismail III was crowned here by the Abencerrajes, and here they remained seven years afraid to return to the Granada’s court, where Mohammed X reigned (1445-1453).
The king Juan II helped Ismail and the Abencerrajes to surround Granada.
Ismail escaped to the Alpujarras where later he would become king of Granada with the name of Yusuf V.

Christian Conquest
1486- Montefrío would be taken by the Catholic Kings.
Modern Age

Contemporary Age

ALHAMA DE GRANADA:


Prehistoric/Pre-Roman
The remains found near the Marchán river, in the cortijos El Navazo and El Chopillo, and in the Agua, the Mujer and Los Molinos caves, testify that this place was inhabited during the Neolithic period.
Romans

Muslims
Plinio called it Stici and the Romans Artigi, but were the Arabs who gave it its present name, al-hammam (thermal waters or the bath).
1482 - Moors and Christians fought about it and were the Catholic Kings troops those that, in a clever blow, stole it from the Muslims.
800 Arabs died and 3,000were imprisoned, they left a rich gold and silver and pearl booty, and silks and jewels and horses and mules, and infinite wheat and barley.

Christian Conquest
1884 - it was partially destroyed by an earthquake, but its reconstruction, to initiative of king Alfonso XII, was carried out respecting the traditional architecture.
Modern Age

Contemporary Age

HUÉTOR TÁJAR:


Prehistoric/Pre-Roman

Romans

Muslims

Christian Conquest
Formed by two settlements that did not get to merge until 1483, indeed the same year in which it once returned – due to the devastation by king Fernando in his skirmishes of conquest.
Both settlements have an old origin: Huétor seems to be related to a Roman settlement called Vesci Faventia ("fertile land") that even got a coin, and Tájar with an Arab settlement that Ibn al-Jatib calls Tarayat, of Taxara, Táhara and, finally, Tájar.

Modern Age
1497 - Conquered definitively, its Moorish population continued living in it and has conserved an Arab tower as inheritance - asphyxiated now by the small village and, mainly, by the magnificent system of irrigated land of the Fertile plain; where before there were white mulberries and silk, today asparagus is the main cultivation.
Contemporary Age




LOJA:


Prehistoric/Pre-Roman
According to the myth, it would have been founded by the grandson of Noah, Túbal, with the name of Alfa.
The fact is that the Phoenicians, who called it Tricolia, gave it its commercial height towards the VIII century before Christ.

Romans
The Romans of Cneo Escipión changed their name of Tricolia by the one of Lascivis (place of many waters and delights).
Muslims
The Arabs transformed this one into Medina Lawsa. They were indeed the Muslims who gave it true urban dimension; it occupied outstanding place in the civil wars of the Caliphate of Cordoba and later acquired a military noticeable character, with the function to guard the Fertile plain that precedes the Nasrid kingdom.
Christian Conquest
Fernando the Catholic besieged it in 1482, but in vain; surrounded again in 1486, he finally obtained its capitulation, event that had a great psychological echo in the advance of the conquest.
More than 5,000 Muslims left the city going to Granada; the fall of this one and all the Nasrid kingdom was ready, and thus the anonymous romanceros wrote it with joy.

Modern Age

Contemporary Age
Of the dense historical past inherited by the inhabitants of Loja, three passages must at least be remembered: the death of the famous Doncel de Sigüenza in one on the Christian attempts to conquer the place in the war against the Nasrid kings of Granada; the birth in the district of the called “Espadón de Loja”, general Narváez, prime minister of the government of Isabel II, whose familiar house-palace and his mausoleum can be visited; and finally, the historical importance of the polygraph Ibn Al-Jatib, geographer, historian and poet, considered as one of the summit figures of Arabic-Andalusian Literature, who was born in Loja in 1313 and died assassinated in Morocco in 1374, after having been twice vizier of the Nasrid Court and to have been forced to exile in both occasions because of the continuous internal fights.

MONUMENTS:

Name

Location

Origin

Typology

Style

Description

Cerro de la Mora

Moraleda de Zafayona
From the last stages of the Argaric Bronze to the Iberian culturews and the Low Roman Empire.
Religious Visigoth

The site of Cerro de la Mora contains vestiges that go from the last stages of the Argaric Bronze to the Iberian cultures and the Low Roman Empire. They have found in it rests of the alloy of copper and tin that revolutionized the customs and economy of the area. It has also been found a Visigoth cemetery.

El Caño

Moraleda de Zafayona



It is a fountain with three jets through which it spurts abundant water of excellent quality to provide to a good part of the town.
Next to it there is an old restores public laundry.

Parochial church of Nuestra Señora de las angustias

Moraleda de Zafayona
XIX


stands out because of its thin tower. Until only decades ago it had an extra part at the other side of the river, the hermitage of San Sebastián, a small but artistic temple disappeared with the construction of a bridge.

Casa de Oficios

Montefrio
1579


It is assumed that it was constructed for public use and destined to artisan trades, although throughout the years its use has been very varied. Nowadays, it has been restored to destine it to museum and exhibition hall. It is made with walls of stone work with profuse decoration. As the most outstanding elements it has the three great semi-circular arcs in the ground floor, two great stone braces in form of lions, and three coats of arms, as well as its windows with lintel and freize engraved with a description that registers the date of its construction.

Centro Urbano

Montefrio
1579


At the base of the viewpoint of the castle, the houses become engraved on the rock and descend by San Sebastián until the Plaza de España, the town centre, with the City council, the Trades House, harmonic building of 1579, and the Encarnacion. From here, long waved streets will take you to the hill of the other end of town, with the church of San Antonio, in whose surroundings the plain neoclassic building of the Pósito is located.

Peña de los Gitanos

Montefrio
Neolítico


About 5 kilometres in the direction of Íllora, the place of the Peña de los Gitanos is an extensive area of green terraces between limestone rocky terrains where more than a hundred megalithic settlements have been excavated, an extraordinary archaeological set of the Neolithic period. In the inferior terraces and surrounding an area of about 6 kilometres in length a hundred tombs that seem to be part of three cemeteries are scattered: the one of the Castellón, the Camarilla, and the Rodeo. The dolmens are about eight meters tall.
They have a trapezoidal room in their corridor and they do not conserve the tumulus. In some of them, small projections carved in the stone wares, representing red deers and other engravings have been found. There are also caves that sheltered the settlers, of which deserve to stand out the High Cave and the one of the Tontas, where some cave painting outlines were found.

Balneario

Alhama de Granada
XII


The bath of Alhama is of great monumental interest, since they are perfectly conserved the baths of the XII century built by the Arabs. It is located at the end of a colourful gorge surrounded by a landscape of rocks, water and exuberant vegetation. The advantage of its thermal waters, indicated for different affections such as rheumatism, arthritis..., and respiratory problems, goes back to the Roman period. In its central room it raises the spring between pointed circular arcs and manned vaults.

Hospita of the Queen

Alhama de Granada
1485


The Mudejar, Gothic and Renaissance influences are the architectonic combinations of the hospital. It was initiated in 1485 as the first blood hospital of the Kingdom of Granada by the Catholic Kings. It is located in the town centre, on the lot of a palace of the cadí of the town and is in Renaissance style with mudéjar armours.

House of the Inquisition

Alhama de granada
XV

Ghotic
It was built in flaming gothic style in the XV century. It is from the same period as the Main Church and it hosted the Local Court of the Inquisition. The façade, half way between the last stages of the gothic style and the first ones of the Renaissance one, with a stonecutted facade topped by a geminated window. It is located inside the historical town centre and nowadays it cannot be visited because it is a private property.

Fortaleza de Taharca

Huétor Tájar
1485


The watchtower of this fortress although it appeared among the most consistent of the area, was destroyed in the spring of 1483, during an assault carried out by the Castilian troops in order to protect Alhama and to harass Loja. At the moment the rests are completely surrounded by houses, in the town centre, reason why its high part is only visible from the Plaza del Ayuntamiento.

Iglesia parroquial de Santa Isabel

Huétor Tájar
XV


In the same Plaza del Ayuntamiento is located the Parochial Church of Santa Isabel with a beautiful brick bell tower. It was constructed between the end of the XV century and the beginning of the XVI century and it was originally consecrated to the invocation of the Virgin of the Conception. The temple conserves its primitive mudejar tower and the old image of Jesus Nazareno, the first patron of the town.

Alcazaba

Loja
The times of the Felipe II


The Alcazaba, military and administrative centre of the medieval large city, maintains its ruinous profile from the times of Felipe II. It is left a good part of the medieval wall, the Ochavada tower, a rain tank very well conserved and rests of the inner building. It takes time to imagine its aspect when it was considered practically inaccessible. In its interior you can find the Nasrid rain tank of three sections and part of the building of the Alcazaba. The building still maintains in its interior a magnificent octagonal cupola along with the monumental arc of access.
It has visual connection with the network of watchtowers, of Nasrid time, that were distributed throughout the border of the Kingdom of Granada. It is a structure of great importance that served to control the possible enemy movements during the war of Granada. Other types of towers also appear in completely different places, like those in the fertile plain or of farmhouse, where people could take refuge in case of any eventuality.

Casa,Jardines y Mausoleo de Narvaéz

Loja
XIX


The house is a construction of the XIX century, residence of the first Duke of Valencia, Ramon Maria de Narváez, also known as “Espadón de Loja”. It is the present headquarters of the City council of the city, it has three plants and a basement, organized around a central courtyard with representative images of important people in Spanish history.
After its restoration in 1993, the construction continues keeping the French style of its original design. The gardens, located in the place of Plines, were the rural residence of the Duke of Valencia, in which the French rationalist geometric taste combines with the romanticism of Anglo-Saxon inspiration of the XIX century. The house, authentic example of Andalusian rural architecture, contains interesting isabelino furniture. It is outstanding the conversion of its oil mill in a small ethnographic museum.
The Mausoleum contains the tomb of the general, head of Government of Isabel II and outstanding figure of the Carlistas Wars. The body of the most tenacious rival of Espartero lies under the work of the sculptor Antonio Moltó, within the chapel-pantheon in which their parents, the counts of Cañada Alta rest, as well as two of their children. The work of the mausoleum shows the figure of Narváez, in Carrara marble, full dress in uniform, under the classic architectonic composition decorated with coats of arms and vegetal motifs.

Claustro del Convento de San Francisco de Asís

Loja
XVI


It was built at the beginning of the XVI century by royal order, today has been turned into inner patio of the Civil Hospital of San Francisco. It was part of the convent until 1835, when it lost its function due to the effect of the Desamortizadoras Laws. The philosophy chair was taught in it and it has always been reference of the Easter of Loja, along with the Chapel of the Vera Cruz. It was previously known as the Chapel of the Blood of Christ and, from 1768, it is established here the Brotherhood of Imprisoned Jesus and the one of Nuestra Señora de los Dolores.

Iglesia Mayor de Santa Maria de la Encarnación

Loja
XVI

Ghotic and Neolítico
Church constructed in two phases. The first one corresponding to the XVI century in mudejar gothic style and the second one, already in the XVIII century, in neoclassic style of the hand of the architects like Ventura Rodriguez or Domingo Solis.
It rises with the ideological intention of supremacy in front of the mosque. It stands out due to its Latin cross plant, the plain decoration, the great collection of pictures that go from the XVI to the XVIII century, and the bell tower. Nowadays it has been declared Place of Cultural Interest.